Líneas y Geoglífos de Nazca y Pampas de Jumana

nazcaSituado en la llanura costera peruana árido, a unos 400 kilómetros al sur de Lima, los geoglifos de Nasca y las pampas de Jumana cubren aproximadamente 450 kilometros. Estas líneas, que fueron rayados en la superficie de la tierra entre 500 aC y 500 dC, se encuentran entre los mayores enigmas de la arqueología por su cantidad, naturaleza, tamaño y continuidad. Los geoglifos representan criaturas vivientes, plantas estilizadas y seres imaginarios, así como figuras geométricas de varios kilómetros de largo. Se cree que han tenido funciones astronómicas rituales.

Declaratoria de las líneas y geoglifos Nazca y Pampas de Jumana como Patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad

 

Durante el 11 periodo de sesiones del Comité del Patrimonio Mundial, realizado en Phuket, Tailandia, entre el 12 y el 17 de diciembre de 1994, a través de la Decisión 18COM XI se declaró a las líneas y geoglifos de Nazca y Pampas de Jumana como patrimonio Cultural de la Humanidad. El valor universal excepcional de las líneas y geoglifos de Naza y Pampas de Jumana fue sustentado en los criterios i) iii) y IV) de la Convención del Patrimonio Mundial.

 

Síntesis histórica del bien
Intensive study of the geoglyphs and comparison with other manifestations of contemporary art forms suggests that they can be divided into three chronological phases.

The first dates from the Chavin period (500-300 BC) and is characterized by the technique of forming figures by piling stones. This was an important period for cultural developments in the Andean region, with strong influence exerted in the lea region from the north by the Formative Middle Late Culture.

The local development known as Paracas represents the second phase (400-200 BC), again strongly influenced from the north. The town of Paracas adapted its culture skillfully to its severe geographical location and>achieved a high level of artistic development.

The third phase, which represents the great majority of the geoglyphs, is the Nazca phase proper (200 BC-AD 500). The Nazca culture derived directly from that of Paracas. The Andean towns developed a powerful religious system which produced, along with Moche on the northern coast of Peru, an outstanding culture represented by its handicrafts (notably pottery) and textiles. Most of the geoglyphs of this period are located close to villages of this culture, such as La Quebrada del Frayle, Cahuachi, Palpa, and lngenio, concentrated in Pampa de Jumana.

 

Valor universal excepcional(VUE)

Criterio i: Convención de Patrimonio Mundial (1972)
The Nazca lines and geoglyphs form a unique and magnificent artistic achievement that is unrivalled in its dimensions and diversity anywhere in the prehistoric world.

Criterio iii: Convención de Patrimonio Mundial (1972)
The Nazca lines bear exceptional witness to the culture and beliefs of this region of pre-Columbian South America. •

Criterio iv: Convención de Patrimonio Mundial (1972)
This system of lines and geoglyphs, which has survived intact for more than two millennia, represents a unique form of land-use which is especially vulnerable to the impact of modem society, and especially mass tourism.

 

Descripción
The Nasca geoglyphs are located in the arid Peruvian coastal plain, sorne 400 km south of Lima, and cover about 450 km2. They are to be found both in the desert and on the low Andean foothiils. These are covered with ferruginous sand and gravel which bas acquired a dark patina from weathering. Removal of the gravel reveals the underlying lighter coloured strata, which contrasts strongly with the darker gravels.

Two techniques were used to define the geoglyphs. In the earlier Chavin period they were defined in outline, the gravel being removed and piled inwards, so as to leave the figures in slight relief. For the most part, however, the technique used was the removal of the gravel from the figure, providing a solid figure that contrasts with its surroundings.
In general terms the geoglyphs fa11 into two categories. The first group (of which about seventy have been identified) are representational, depicting in schematic form a variety of natural forms. Many of these are animais, birds, insects, and other living creatures: examples include the Spider (46 m long), the Monkey (55 m), the Guanay or guano bird (280 m), the Lizard (180 m), the Humming Bird (50 m), the Killer Whales (65m), and the largest of all, the Pelican (285 m). Stylistically they can be 1inked closely with motifs on other representational art of the period, such as the pottery and textiles.

Other figures represent flowers, plants, and trees, deformed or fantastic figures (for example, a strange creature with two human bands, one with only four fingers), and objects of everyday life, such as looms and tupus (ornamental clasps). There are very few anthropomorphic figures, which have acquired somewhat fanciful names - the Astronaut, E.T. (discovered in 1982), the Man with the Hat, and the Executioner. These are paralleled by the petroglyphs to be found in the more rocky parts of the region and are considered to be early in date. The second group comprises the lines proper. These "generally straight lines criss-cross certain parts of the pampas of the region in a1l directions. Some are several kilometres in length and form designs of many different geometrical figures - triangles, spirals, rectangles, wavy lines, etc. Others radiate from a central promontory or encircle it, as in the cases of the quipus. Y et another group consists of so-called "tracks", which appear to have been laid out to accommodate large numbers of people.
There have been many theories put forward to interpret these remarkable geoglyphs. The more fantastic of these, which relate them to extra-terrestrial beings, can be summarily rejected. The general consensus at the present time is that they had ritual functions connected with astronomy. They were closely linked with the ayllus (clans), probably as totemic representations, and played an important role in their economie and social relationships.

Autenticidad

 

The authenticity of the Nasca Lines is not in question. The method of their formation, by removing the overlying weathered gravels to reveal the lighter bedrock, is suth that their authenticity is assured.

 

Último informe del estado de conservación (2013)

Último informe del Perú sobre el estado de conservación (2015)

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